Buku Sejarah Furnitur Klasik: “Illustrated History of Furniture”, oleh Frederick Litchfield

Bagi rekan-rekan yang sedang mempelajari sejarah seni terapan, atau praktisi seni desain, berikut ini sebagian cuplikan gambar-gambar dari buku “Illustrated History of Furniture”, oleh Frederick Litchfield, tahun 1893.

Buku ini sendiri merupakan buah karya seni tinggi. Dibuat sangat sistematis disertai ilutrasi detail berdasarkan riset dari berbagai catatan sejarah dan artifak kuno di berbagai museum.

Berikut ini sebagian ilutrasi di dalam buku:

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Gambar pada slide di atas adalah ilustrasi rinci, mulai dari era Assyria dan Mesir kuno, Yunani , Romawi, era kekaisaran Cina kuno, era Shogun di Jepang, abad pertengahan dan Renaisans di seputar Eropa hingga era abad 19.

Buku ini terdiri dari dua belas bab, ini daftar isinya:

Chapter I.

BIBLICAL REFERENCES: Solomon’s House and Temple–Palace of Ahashuerus.

ASSYRIAN FURNITURE: Nimrod’s Palace–Mr. George Smith quoted. EGYPTIAN

FURNITURE: Specimens in the British Museum–The Workman’s

Stool–Various articles of Domestic Furniture–Dr. Birch quoted. GREEK

FURNITURE: The Bas Reliefs in the British Museum–The Chest of

Cypselus–Laws and Customs of the Greeks–House of Alcibiades–Plutarch

quoted. ROMAN FURNITURE: Position of Rome–The Roman House–Cicero’s

Table–Thyine Wood–Customs of wealthy Romans–Downfall of the Empire.

Chapter II.

Period of 1000 years from Fall of Rome, A.D. 476, to Capture of

Constantinople, 1453–The Crusades–Influence of Christianity–Chairs

of St. Peter and Maximian at Rome, Ravenna and Venice–Edict of Leo

III. prohibiting Image worship–The Rise of Venice–Charlemagne and his

successors–The Chair of Dagobert–Byzantine character of

Furniture–Norwegian carving–Russian and Scandinavian–The

Anglo-Saxons–Sir Walter Scott quoted–Descriptions of Anglo-Saxon

Houses and Customs–Art in Flemish Cities–Gothic Architecture–The

Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey–Penshurst–French Furniture in

the 14th Century–Description of rooms–The South Kensington

Museum–Transition from Gothic to Renaissance–German carved work: the

Credence, the Buffet, and Dressoir.

Chapter III.

THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALY: Leonardo da Vinci and Raffaele–Church of St.

Peter, contemporary great artists–The Italian Palazzo–Methods of

gilding, inlaying and mounting Furniture–Pietra-dura and other

enrichments–Ruskin’s criticism. THE RENAISSANCE IN FRANCE: Francois I.

and the Chateau of Fontainebleau–Influence on Courtiers-Chairs of the

time–Design of Cabinets–M.E. Bonnaffe on The Renaissance–Bedstead of

Jeanne d’Albret–Deterioration of taste in time of Henry IV.–Louis

XIII. Furniture–Brittany woodwork. THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NETHERLANDS:

Influence of the House of Burgundy on Art–The Chimney-piece at Bruges,

and other casts of specimens in South Kensington Museum. THE

RENAISSANCE IN SPAIN: The resources of Spain in the sixteenth and

seventeenth centuries–Influence of Saracenic Art–High-backed leather

chairs–The Carthusian Convent at Granada. THE RENAISSANCE IN GERMANY:

Albrecht Duerer–Famous Steel Chair of Augsburg–German seventeenth

century carving in St. Saviour’s Hospital. THE RENAISSANCE IN ENGLAND:

Influence of Foreign Artists in the time of Henry VIII.–End of

Feudalism–Hampton Court Palace–Linen pattern Panels–Woodwork in the

Henry VII. Chapel at Westminster Abbey–Livery Cupboards at

Hengrave–Harrison quoted–The “parler”–Alteration in English

customs–Chairs of the sixteenth century–Coverings and Cushions of the

time, extract from old Inventory–South Kensington

Cabinet–Elizabethan Mirror at Goodrich Court–Shaw’s “Ancient

Furniture”–The Glastonbury Chair–Introduction of Frames into

England–Characteristics of Native Woodwork–Famous Country

Mansions–Alteration in design of Woodwork and Furniture–Panelled

Rooms in South Kensington–The Charterhouse–Gray’s Inn Hall and Middle

Temple–The Hall of the Carpenters’ Company–The Great Bed of

Ware–Shakespeare’s Chair–Penshurst Place.

Chapter IV.

English Home Life in the Reign of James I.–Sir Henry Wootton

quoted–Inigo Jones and his work–Ford Castle–Chimney Pieces in South

Kensington Museum–Table in the Carpenters’ Hall–Hall of the Barbers’

Company–The Charterhouse–Time of Charles I.–Furniture at

Knole–Eagle House, Wimbledon–Mr. Charles Eastlake–Monuments at

Canterbury and Westminster–Settles, Couches, and Chairs of the Stuart

period–Sir Paul Pindar’s House–Cromwellian Furniture–The

Restoration–Indo-Portuguese Furniture–Hampton Court Palace–Evelyn’s

description–The Great Fire of London–Hall of the Brewers’

Company–Oak Panelling of the time–Grinling Gibbons and his work–The

Edict of Nantes–Silver Furniture at Knole–William III. and Dutch

influence–Queen Anne–Sideboards, Bureaus, and Grandfather’s

Clocks–Furniture at Hampton Court.

Chapter V.

CHINESE FURNITURE: Probable source of artistic taste–Sir William

Chambers quoted–Racinet’s “Le Costume Historique”–Dutch

influence–The South Kensington and the Duke of Edinburgh

Collections–Processes of making Lacquer–Screens in the Kensington

Museum. JAPANESE FURNITURE: Early History–Sir Rutherford Alcock and

Lord Elgin–The Collection of the Shogun–Famous Collections–Action of

the present Government of Japan–Special characteristics. INDIAN

FURNITURE: Early European influence–Furniture of the Moguls–Racinet’s

Work–Bombay Furniture–Ivory Chairs and Table–Specimens in the India

Museum. PERSIAN WOODWORK: Collection of Objets d’Art formed by Gen.

Murdoch Smith, R.E.—Industrial Arts of the Persians–Arab

influence–South Kensington specimens. SARACENIC WOODWORK: Oriental

customs–Specimens in the South Kensington Museum of Arab Work–M.

d’Aveune’s Work.

Chapter VI.

PALACE OF VERSAILLES: “Grand” and “Petit Trianon”–The three Styles of

Louis XIV., XV., and XVI.–Colbert and Lebrun–Andre Charles Boule and

his Work–Carved and Gilt Furniture–The Regency and its

Influence–Alteration in Condition of French Society–Watteau, Lancret,

and Boucher. Louis XV. FURNITURE: Famous Ebenistes–Vernis Martin

Furniture–Caffieri and Gouthiere Mountings–Sevres Porcelain

introduced into Cabinets–Gobelins Tapestry–The “Bureau du Roi.” LOUIS

XVI. AND MARIE ANTOINETTE: The Queen’s Influence–The Painters Chardin

and Greuze–More simple Designs–Characteristic Ornaments of Louis XVI.

Furniture–Riesener’s Work–Gouthiere’s Mountings–Specimens in the

Louvre–The Hamilton Palace Sale–French influence upon the design of

Furniture in other countries–The Jones Collection–Extract from “The

Times”.

Chapter VII.

Chinese style–Sir William Chambers–The Brothers Adams’

work–Pergolesi, Cipriani, and Angelica Kauffmann–Architects of the

time–Wedgwood and Flaxman–Chippendale’s Work and his

Contemporaries–Chair in the Barbers’ Hall–Lock, Shearer, Hepplewhite;

Ince, Mayhew, Sheraton–Introduction of Satinwood and

Mahogany–Gillows, of Lancaster and London–History of the

Sideboard–The Dining Room–Furniture of the time.

Chapter VIII.

The French Revolution and First Empire–Influence on design of

Napoleon’s Campaigns–The Cabinet presented to Marie Louise–Dutch

Furniture of the time–English Furniture–Sheraton’s later work–Thomas

Hope, architect–George Smith’s designs–Fashion during the

Regency–Gothic revival–Seddon’s Furniture–Other Makers–Influence on

design of the Restoration in France–Furniture of William IV. and early

part of Queen Victoria’s reign–Baroque and Rococo styles–The

panelling of rooms, dado, and skirting–The Art Union–The Society of

Arts–Sir Charles Barry and the new Palace of Westminster–Pugin’s

designs–Auction Prices of Furniture–Christie’s–The London Club

Houses–Steam–Different Trade Customs–Exhibitions in France and

England–Harry Rogers’ work–The Queen’s cradle–State of Art in

England during first part of present reign–Continental

designs–Italian carving–Cabinet work–General remarks.

Chapter IX.

THE GREAT EXHIBITION: Exhibitors and contemporary Cabinet

Makers–Exhibition of 1862, London; 1867, Paris; and

subsequently–Description of Illustrations–Fourdinois, Wright and

Mansfield–The South Kensington Museum–Revival of

Marquetry–Comparison of Present Day with that of a Hundred Years

ago–AEstheticism–Traditions–Trades-Unionism–The Arts and Crafts

Exhibition Society–Independence of Furniture–Present

Fashions–Writers on Design–Modern Furniture in other

Countries–Concluding Remarks.