Bagi rekan-rekan yang sedang mempelajari sejarah seni terapan, atau praktisi seni desain, berikut ini sebagian cuplikan gambar-gambar dari buku “Illustrated History of Furniture”, oleh Frederick Litchfield, tahun 1893.
Buku ini sendiri merupakan buah karya seni tinggi. Dibuat sangat sistematis disertai ilutrasi detail berdasarkan riset dari berbagai catatan sejarah dan artifak kuno di berbagai museum.
Berikut ini sebagian ilutrasi di dalam buku:
Gambar pada slide di atas adalah ilustrasi rinci, mulai dari era Assyria dan Mesir kuno, Yunani , Romawi, era kekaisaran Cina kuno, era Shogun di Jepang, abad pertengahan dan Renaisans di seputar Eropa hingga era abad 19.
Buku ini terdiri dari dua belas bab, ini daftar isinya:
BIBLICAL REFERENCES: Solomon’s House and Temple–Palace of Ahashuerus.
ASSYRIAN FURNITURE: Nimrod’s Palace–Mr. George Smith quoted. EGYPTIAN
FURNITURE: Specimens in the British Museum–The Workman’s
Stool–Various articles of Domestic Furniture–Dr. Birch quoted. GREEK
FURNITURE: The Bas Reliefs in the British Museum–The Chest of
Cypselus–Laws and Customs of the Greeks–House of Alcibiades–Plutarch
quoted. ROMAN FURNITURE: Position of Rome–The Roman House–Cicero’s
Table–Thyine Wood–Customs of wealthy Romans–Downfall of the Empire.
Period of 1000 years from Fall of Rome, A.D. 476, to Capture of
Constantinople, 1453–The Crusades–Influence of Christianity–Chairs
of St. Peter and Maximian at Rome, Ravenna and Venice–Edict of Leo
III. prohibiting Image worship–The Rise of Venice–Charlemagne and his
successors–The Chair of Dagobert–Byzantine character of
Furniture–Norwegian carving–Russian and Scandinavian–The
Anglo-Saxons–Sir Walter Scott quoted–Descriptions of Anglo-Saxon
Houses and Customs–Art in Flemish Cities–Gothic Architecture–The
Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey–Penshurst–French Furniture in
the 14th Century–Description of rooms–The South Kensington
Museum–Transition from Gothic to Renaissance–German carved work: the
Credence, the Buffet, and Dressoir.
THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALY: Leonardo da Vinci and Raffaele–Church of St.
Peter, contemporary great artists–The Italian Palazzo–Methods of
gilding, inlaying and mounting Furniture–Pietra-dura and other
enrichments–Ruskin’s criticism. THE RENAISSANCE IN FRANCE: Francois I.
and the Chateau of Fontainebleau–Influence on Courtiers-Chairs of the
time–Design of Cabinets–M.E. Bonnaffe on The Renaissance–Bedstead of
Jeanne d’Albret–Deterioration of taste in time of Henry IV.–Louis
XIII. Furniture–Brittany woodwork. THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NETHERLANDS:
Influence of the House of Burgundy on Art–The Chimney-piece at Bruges,
and other casts of specimens in South Kensington Museum. THE
RENAISSANCE IN SPAIN: The resources of Spain in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries–Influence of Saracenic Art–High-backed leather
chairs–The Carthusian Convent at Granada. THE RENAISSANCE IN GERMANY:
Albrecht Duerer–Famous Steel Chair of Augsburg–German seventeenth
century carving in St. Saviour’s Hospital. THE RENAISSANCE IN ENGLAND:
Influence of Foreign Artists in the time of Henry VIII.–End of
Feudalism–Hampton Court Palace–Linen pattern Panels–Woodwork in the
Henry VII. Chapel at Westminster Abbey–Livery Cupboards at
Hengrave–Harrison quoted–The “parler”–Alteration in English
customs–Chairs of the sixteenth century–Coverings and Cushions of the
time, extract from old Inventory–South Kensington
Cabinet–Elizabethan Mirror at Goodrich Court–Shaw’s “Ancient
Furniture”–The Glastonbury Chair–Introduction of Frames into
England–Characteristics of Native Woodwork–Famous Country
Mansions–Alteration in design of Woodwork and Furniture–Panelled
Rooms in South Kensington–The Charterhouse–Gray’s Inn Hall and Middle
Temple–The Hall of the Carpenters’ Company–The Great Bed of
Ware–Shakespeare’s Chair–Penshurst Place.
English Home Life in the Reign of James I.–Sir Henry Wootton
quoted–Inigo Jones and his work–Ford Castle–Chimney Pieces in South
Kensington Museum–Table in the Carpenters’ Hall–Hall of the Barbers’
Company–The Charterhouse–Time of Charles I.–Furniture at
Knole–Eagle House, Wimbledon–Mr. Charles Eastlake–Monuments at
Canterbury and Westminster–Settles, Couches, and Chairs of the Stuart
period–Sir Paul Pindar’s House–Cromwellian Furniture–The
Restoration–Indo-Portuguese Furniture–Hampton Court Palace–Evelyn’s
description–The Great Fire of London–Hall of the Brewers’
Company–Oak Panelling of the time–Grinling Gibbons and his work–The
Edict of Nantes–Silver Furniture at Knole–William III. and Dutch
influence–Queen Anne–Sideboards, Bureaus, and Grandfather’s
Clocks–Furniture at Hampton Court.
CHINESE FURNITURE: Probable source of artistic taste–Sir William
Chambers quoted–Racinet’s “Le Costume Historique”–Dutch
influence–The South Kensington and the Duke of Edinburgh
Collections–Processes of making Lacquer–Screens in the Kensington
Museum. JAPANESE FURNITURE: Early History–Sir Rutherford Alcock and
Lord Elgin–The Collection of the Shogun–Famous Collections–Action of
the present Government of Japan–Special characteristics. INDIAN
FURNITURE: Early European influence–Furniture of the Moguls–Racinet’s
Work–Bombay Furniture–Ivory Chairs and Table–Specimens in the India
Museum. PERSIAN WOODWORK: Collection of Objets d’Art formed by Gen.
Murdoch Smith, R.E.—Industrial Arts of the Persians–Arab
influence–South Kensington specimens. SARACENIC WOODWORK: Oriental
customs–Specimens in the South Kensington Museum of Arab Work–M.
PALACE OF VERSAILLES: “Grand” and “Petit Trianon”–The three Styles of
Louis XIV., XV., and XVI.–Colbert and Lebrun–Andre Charles Boule and
his Work–Carved and Gilt Furniture–The Regency and its
Influence–Alteration in Condition of French Society–Watteau, Lancret,
and Boucher. Louis XV. FURNITURE: Famous Ebenistes–Vernis Martin
Furniture–Caffieri and Gouthiere Mountings–Sevres Porcelain
introduced into Cabinets–Gobelins Tapestry–The “Bureau du Roi.” LOUIS
XVI. AND MARIE ANTOINETTE: The Queen’s Influence–The Painters Chardin
and Greuze–More simple Designs–Characteristic Ornaments of Louis XVI.
Furniture–Riesener’s Work–Gouthiere’s Mountings–Specimens in the
Louvre–The Hamilton Palace Sale–French influence upon the design of
Furniture in other countries–The Jones Collection–Extract from “The
Chinese style–Sir William Chambers–The Brothers Adams’
work–Pergolesi, Cipriani, and Angelica Kauffmann–Architects of the
time–Wedgwood and Flaxman–Chippendale’s Work and his
Contemporaries–Chair in the Barbers’ Hall–Lock, Shearer, Hepplewhite;
Ince, Mayhew, Sheraton–Introduction of Satinwood and
Mahogany–Gillows, of Lancaster and London–History of the
Sideboard–The Dining Room–Furniture of the time.
The French Revolution and First Empire–Influence on design of
Napoleon’s Campaigns–The Cabinet presented to Marie Louise–Dutch
Furniture of the time–English Furniture–Sheraton’s later work–Thomas
Hope, architect–George Smith’s designs–Fashion during the
Regency–Gothic revival–Seddon’s Furniture–Other Makers–Influence on
design of the Restoration in France–Furniture of William IV. and early
part of Queen Victoria’s reign–Baroque and Rococo styles–The
panelling of rooms, dado, and skirting–The Art Union–The Society of
Arts–Sir Charles Barry and the new Palace of Westminster–Pugin’s
designs–Auction Prices of Furniture–Christie’s–The London Club
Houses–Steam–Different Trade Customs–Exhibitions in France and
England–Harry Rogers’ work–The Queen’s cradle–State of Art in
England during first part of present reign–Continental
designs–Italian carving–Cabinet work–General remarks.
THE GREAT EXHIBITION: Exhibitors and contemporary Cabinet
Makers–Exhibition of 1862, London; 1867, Paris; and
subsequently–Description of Illustrations–Fourdinois, Wright and
Mansfield–The South Kensington Museum–Revival of
Marquetry–Comparison of Present Day with that of a Hundred Years
ago–AEstheticism–Traditions–Trades-Unionism–The Arts and Crafts
Exhibition Society–Independence of Furniture–Present
Fashions–Writers on Design–Modern Furniture in other